Disclosures Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
This Form 10-K includes "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of Section 21E of the Exchange Act. Those statements include statements regarding the intent, belief or current expectations of the Company and its subsidiaries and our management team. Any such forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve risks and uncertainties, and actual results may differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements. These risks and uncertainties include but are not limited to those risks and uncertainties set forth in Item 1A of this Form 10-K. In light of the significant risks and uncertainties inherent in the forward-looking statements included in this Form 10-K, the inclusion of such statements should not be regarded as a representation by us or any other person that our objectives and plans will be achieved. Further, these forward-looking statements reflect our view only as of the date of this Form 10-K. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligations to update any forward-looking statements and we disclaim any intent to update forward-looking statements after the date of this Form 10-K to reflect subsequent developments. Accordingly, you should also carefully consider the factors set forth in other reports or documents that we file from time to time with the
SEC. 84 Table of Contents Summary
NeuBase Therapeutics, Inc.("NeuBase", "Company", "we", "us" and "our") is a biotechnology company focused on significantly reducing the burden of untreatable morbidity and mortality across the globe caused by rare and common diseases. To achieve this goal, we have designed, built, and validated a new precision genetic medicines platform technology able to uniquely drug the double-stranded human genome and address disease at the root of causality without many of the limitations of early precision genetic medicine technologies. We are poised to file our first Investigational New Drug ("INDs") applications with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration("FDA") beginning in calendar year 2022 and intend to scale into additional indications with increasing speed
and efficiency. Overview Most diseases remain undruggable with current therapeutic modalities, leaving millions of patients with limited options. These include rare diseases, cancers, common chronic and infectious diseases. Most diseases are genetic, in whole or in part, underscoring the critical importance of new medicines that can drug the human genome for the future of health. Yet the genome has been difficult to target with therapies due to its double-stranded structure which evolved to protect the fidelity of this essential blueprint of life. Genes in the genome are "transcribed" into RNA which are then usually "translated" into proteins. As a result of our historical inability to drug the genome directly to address root causality, the pharmaceutical industry moved downstream, initially working to drug the protein products of genes. The complexity associated with drugging proteins, each of which is a unique and often dynamic molecular entity, has resulted in a drug development process that is commonly inefficient, time-consuming, and expensive with low probabilities of success. This strategy has, in part, resulted in high drug prices and a high remaining burden of unmet patient need. These issues could potentially be resolved by targeting the genetic material itself instead of downstream protein products. Precision genetic medicines represent a relatively new class of therapies that target genetic sequences that are the root cause of diseases. While early precision genetic medicines companies have proven that human disease can be addressed at the genetic level, the nascent field remains fragmented with most technologies only able to address a single causal genetic mechanism (either gain-of-function, change-of-function, or loss-of-function of a gene). Most technologies still act downstream at the RNA level and exhibit limitations relating to delivery, tolerability, selectivity, manufacturability, durability of effect and scalability. We have designed, built, and validated a new technology platform that can uniquely Drug the Genome™ to address the three disease-causing mechanisms (i.e., gain-of-function, change-of-function, or loss-of-function of a gene), without the limitations of early precision genetic medicines. The technology is predicated on synthetic peptide-nucleic acid ("PNA") chemistry and can directly engage the genome in a sequence-specific manner and address root causality of diseases. These compounds operate by temporarily engaging the genome (or single and double-stranded RNA targets, if desired) and interfering with cellular machinery that process mutant genes to halt their ability to manifest a disease. We have repeatedly demonstrated, in proof-of-concept preclinical animal studies across FY2020 and FY2021, the ability to address multiple disease-causing genes, and different causal mechanisms, to resolve the disease state without the limitations of early genetic medicine technologies. These limitations, and the data that illustrates that we have likely engineered them out of our platform to potentially unlock broad impact across many diseases, are:
Delivery. Most of the early precision genetic medicine technologies are large and
heavily negatively charged, making it difficult for them to distribute widely
throughout the body to treat tissues that are affected by many diseases. This
often requires that they be injected locally, such as in the brain, probably
? limiting their ability to have a large-scale impact. We have designed and developed a
exclusive delivery technology that allows its small neutral load and
water soluble compounds to be administered using a patient friendly route such as
by subcutaneous injection and obtain a wide biodistribution, including in the
deep brain and cell nuclei.
Validating data. Pre-clinical non-human primate ("NHP") data presented in FY2020 illustrated the ability of a 5mg/kg systemic injection of the delivery shuttle to distribute into every tissue examined at therapeutically relevant concentrations, defined as concentrations which show activity in patient-derived cell lines when coupled to a pharmacophore. More recently, in FY2021, we presented data illustrating that the delivery shuttle conjugated to a NT-0200 program compound could be injected subcutaneously into the HSALR transgenic animal model of myotonic dystrophy type 1 ("DM1") and achieve both molecular and functional rescue of myotonia in the distant tibialis anterior muscle group in the transgenic animal. Also, in FY2021, we presented data that illustrate that subcutaneous injection of the same delivery shuttle conjugated to a compound for the NT- 85 Table of Contents
0100 program into the zQ175 transgenic animal model of
Huntington'sdisease ("HD") could, within 7 days from first dose, cross the blood-brain barrier in sufficient concentrations to engage the mutant gene target and reduce the resultant protein levels from whole-brain isolates to a statistically significant degree. This delivery shuttle is now utilized in all the current therapeutic development programs to move payloads to various tissues that are affected by diseases after patient-friendly routes of systemic administration. Delivery of drugs across the blood-brain barrier and into muscle via a systemic route has been a significant challenge in the industry.
Tolerability. Most of the early precision genetic medicine technologies triggered the
innate and / or acquired immune system, limiting their ability to reach
pharmacological doses or to be used repeatedly. For example, the delivery of
? negatively charged nucleic acid therapies often trigger the innate immune system
immune system and protein delivery often trigger the acquired immune system. Our
The technology is made up of fully synthetic compounds that have proven to be
“Immunologically inert”, potentially allowing them to be administered
chronically to Drug the Genome ™ temporarily during a patient’s life.
Validating data. We have illustrated good tolerability of a variety of compounds across our various programs in rodent and NHP animal models across FY2020 and FY2021, with both single and multi-dose administration. This data includes a lack of an obvious acute immune response in NHPs which has been seen with other early precision genetic medicines. Exploratory multi-species toxicology data will be presented in our DM1 program in 1H2022 (calendar year).
Selectivity. Many technologies in the first precision genetic drugs
industry cannot distinguish between mutant gene sequences and their
homologous (“wild type”), nor between other very similar target sequences
in the cell. This potentially limits these technologies in their ability to
treat small disease-causing mutations such as single nucleotide changes
(“Point mutations”), which represent a large part of
? mutations and functional variants. Our technology can discriminate the point
mutations, which increases the space of opportunity. This ability comes from
the “rigid” nature of the backbone which does not tolerate the imperfect target
commitment. In addition, this single-base selectivity reduces the probability
that our compounds will engage with genes elsewhere in the genome that are
similar but not identical, potentially reducing adverse events triggered by
off target engagement (“OTE”).
Validating data. In FY2021 we presented data illustrating that we could achieve near-perfect selectivity in engaging the mutant G12D copy of the KRAS gene vs. the wild-type copy and inhibiting transcription and translation of the resultant mutant protein production in vitro. When these compounds are delivered to xenograft animal models with KRAS-mutation driven tumors, significant tumor growth reductions and signaling through downstream effectors of the KRAS pathway were measured while being well-tolerated as a gross measure of allele-selectivity. In FY2021 we also presented data that illustrated statistically significant allele-selective knock-down of mutant Huntingtin ("HTT") protein vs. healthy wild-type protein after subcutaneous injection into the zQ175 transgenic animal model.
Manufacturing capacity. Many technologies in the first precision genetic drugs
the industry requires significant investments in custom manufacturing
infrastructures, and are therefore limited in their potential impact and scalability.
? Our technology uses established and fully commoditized manufacturing
process, both for the synthesis of small molecules and synthetic peptides (the
the combination of which is necessary for the manufacture of our compounds) which are
available with high redundancy and on a commercial scale.
Validating data. In FY2021 we nominated a development candidate for our DM1 program and initiated manufacturing scale up with several contract manufacturing organizations ("CMOs") across the globe. Within a period of months, for relatively low cost compared to the investment required to build bespoke manufacturing facilities, we established redundancy in manufacturing for GLP and GMP materials at a scale sufficient for our work through Phase 1/2 clinical trials.
Durability. Many technologies in the early precision genetic drug industry
? can only be administered once, are often cleared by the immune system, or are
otherwise not sustainable in their effectiveness.
Validating data. We illustrated in preclinical studies in FY2020 that our delivery shuttle when delivered systemically into NHPs, is rapidly taken up into tissues across the body, and very slowly eliminated via the kidneys. Elimination of the delivery shuttle occurred at approximately 4% of the administered dose over the course of one week, promising an enduring response. 86 Table of Contents Scalability. Many technologies in the early precision genetic medicines industry are not truly scalable across a variety of indications, for the
reasons described above. As our goal is to provide solutions to those who suffer
of a wide variety of diseases around the world, we have specially designed a
scalable platform. We always address a single type of target for all therapies
programs (the genome), use the same delivery shuttle allowing
? pharmacokinetics (“PK”), absorption distribution metabolism and excretion
(“ADME”), dose, route and treatment regimens across programs, primarily use the
same chemistry producing similar therapeutic indices, are able to predict OTE a
a priori using bioinformatics and engineer around them before starting
development and leverage the development of manufacturing processes in all programs
so that the continuous learning of the platform has already created an increasing speed and
Validating data. In FY2021 we launched a new set of programs in oncology targeting the most prevalent and currently undruggable KRAS mutations. The development of a series of hits was achieved with an order of magnitude higher efficiency that with our first two programs, based on a deeper understanding of the structure-activity relationships uncovered in our initial programs and use of the same delivery shuttle for seamless in vivo pharmacologic testing. As further validation of our PATrOL™ platform's capabilities, in FY2021, we described data illustrating that our first-in-class platform technology can address various types of causal insults by Drugging the Genome™ in animal models of a variety of human diseases after patient-friendly routes of administration and does so in a well-tolerated manner. Based on what we believe is a solid foundation, FY2021 marked a transition from a research-stage to a development-stage company. We established new research laboratories and administrative offices in
Pittsburgh, PA, expanded our pipeline to include both rare disease and oncology, recruited clinical development and Chemistry manufacturing and controls ("CMC") teams, established offices in Cambridge, MA, nominated a development compound for our DM1 program, initiated good manufacturing practice ("GMP") manufacturing scale up finalized the formulation work for subcutaneous and intravenous routes, initiated PK/ADME studies with the DM1 development candidate, and initiated PK/pharmacodynamics ("PD") studies to define the dosing regimen for initial human studies. In addition, we have continued to optimize candidates for our HD and KRAS programs, illustrating pharmacology in vivo in appropriate animal models of each. Additionally, in FY2021 we developed a proprietary genetic disease database with utility in prioritization of pipeline expansion and partnership opportunities. We are developing precision genetic medicines targeting rare, monogenic diseases, for which there are no approved therapies, as well as more common genetic disorders, including cancers that are resistant to current therapeutic approaches. Our pipeline includes therapeutic candidates for the treatment of DM1, HD, and cancer-driving point mutations in KRAS, G12V and G12D, which are involved in many tumor types and have historically been "undruggable" (Figure 4). Based on compelling results from in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies, we plan to file an IND application for our DM1 investigational therapy in the fourth quarter of CY2022. We are targeting CY2023 to file an IND application for an investigational therapy to treat Huntington'sdisease. Both are devastating systemic diseases with no effective therapies. Our oncology program has recently been announced (FY2021) together with in vivo activity illustrating allele-selective engagement of mutant KRAS at the DNA and RNA levels, with abrogation of downstream hyperactive signaling through multiple RAS pathway members, resulting in anti-tumor activity. We continue to improve upon our platform while concurrently developing programs, resulting in next-generation compounds that continue to make their way through preclinical development in a parallel manner. We have recently finalized an analysis of the entire known mutational database and selected several additional high-value indications for screening and development. 87 Table of Contents [[Image Removed: Graphic]]
Figure 4. The initial pipeline in rare diseases and oncology, with learnings from the platform increasing the effectiveness and speed of additional undisclosed programs, both developed in-house and in discussions for the co- development with partners.
We are poised to file a series of IND applications for indications with large unmet needs such as DM1, which is expected to reach IND application filing by the end of CY2022, HD expected to reach IND application in CY2023 and cancers (KRAS G12V and G12D mutations) likely thereafter. 88
In advance of our first IND application filing in the fourth quarter of CY2022 and our subsequent planned transition to a clinical stage company in our combined Phase 1/2 clinical trial in DM1, the following data sets are planned to be disseminated: Program Calendar Year Data Set Relevance DM1 1H2022 Development candidate PK Defines the exposures in muscle, / ADME and heart, and brain after systemic bioavailability in administration to enable correct wild-type model(s) dosing for a whole-body solution Development candidate PK Defines the relationship between / PD in transgenic tissue exposures of the development murine model(s) candidate and molecular / functional rescue of the disease to enable dose, route, and regimen in the clinic Development candidate Illustrates the safety of the exploratory toxicology development candidate and defines the in murine and NHP models maximum tolerated dose; broader platform
validation of tolerability for
other programs 2H2022 GLP toxicology Formalizes and extends upon the exploratory toxicology work to enable the IND filing Mechanistic studies Articulates details of the mechanism including blood-brain by which the development compound acts barrier transit and is differentiated 4Q2022 IND filing with FDA We have confidence that the pharmacology and tolerability data warrant a review by the FDA ideally enabling first-in-human studies within 30 days HD 1H2022 Reduction in mutant HTT Further proves passage across the aggregates in the brain blood-brain barrier in sufficient of transgenic murine quantities and CNS distribution to models(s) with systemic reduce or eliminate the route disease-causing neuronal HTT aggregates via a systemic route of administration 2H2022 Functional rescue of Connects the reduction of mutant HTT transgenic murine protein and reduction in neuronal models(s) with systemic aggregates to a reduction in the route progress of the disease after a systemic route Development candidate We believe the pharmacology and nomination tolerability data support investment into CMC scale up and IND-enabling activities 2023 IND filing with FDA We have confidence that the pharmacology and tolerability data warrant a review by the FDA ideally enabling first-in-human studies within 30 days KRAS 2022 Optimization of The properties of target engagement candidates and have been optimized for potency and mechanistic studies selectivity including temporal dynamics of mutant KRAS reduction In vivo pharmacology in Articulates that systemic delivery xenograft murine models confers beneficial pharmacologic and tolerability profiles and sets the stage for development candidate nomination 89 Table of Contents Results of Operations
Operating results for the year ended
Year Ended September 30, 2021 2020 Change OPERATING EXPENSES
General and administrative expenses
$ 12,202,217 $ 10,123,298 $ 2,078,919Research and development expenses 11,475,201 6,946,008 4,529,193 Research and development expense- license acquired 2,888,029
- 2,888,029 TOTAL OPERATING EXPENSES 26,565,447 17,069,306 9,496,141 LOSS FROM OPERATIONS (26,565,447) (17,069,306) (9,496,141) OTHER INCOME (EXPENSE) Interest expense (32,330) (7,686) (24,644) Interest income 12,550 - 12,550
Change in fair value of warrant liabilities 950,151 (453,808) 1,403,959 Equity in losses on equity method investment (224,534)
(262,861) 38,327 Other income 450,309 409,141 41,168 Total other expenses, net 1,156,146 (315,214) 1,471,360 NET LOSS
$ (25,409,301) $ (17,384,520) $ (8,024,781)
Until we are able to generate income, our management expects to continue to incur net losses.
General and administrative expenses
General and administrative expense consists primarily of legal and professional fees, wages and stock-based compensation. General and administrative expenses increased by
$2.1 millionfor the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021, as compared to the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020, primarily due to an increase in employee head count and additional legal and professional services.
Research and development costs
Research and development expense consist primarily of professional fees, manufacturing expenses, wages and stock-based compensation. Research and development expenses increased by
$4.5 millionfor the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021, as compared to the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020, primarily due to an increase in employee headcount and the ramp up of research and development activities.
Research and development costs – Acquisition of Vera
Research and development expenses, Vera Acquisition consists of the fair value of acquired Vera assets that were determined to represent in-process research and development assets with no future alternative use. The in-process research and development assets were expensed under the guidance of ASC 730, Research and Development, upon the asset acquisition. No such expenses were incurred during the fiscal year ended
September 30, 2020.
Interest expense consists primarily of interest on notes payable and the loss on sale of marketable securities. Interest expense increased for the fiscal year ended
September 30, 2021, as compared to the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020, primarily due to the sale of marketable securities prior to their maturity.
Change in fair value of liabilities related to warrants
Change in fair value of warrant liabilities reflects the changes in warrant liabilities. The change in fair value of warrant liabilities was primarily due to changes in our stock price and contractual term of the warrants, which are reflected in the warrant valuation. 90
Equity in losses on investments according to the equity method
The Company accounts for its investment in DepYmed common shares using the equity method of accounting and records its proportionate share of DepYmed's net income and losses. Equity in losses for the years ended
September 30, 2021and 2020 was approximately $0.2 millionand $0.3 million, respectively.
Other income during the year ended
September 30, 2021primarily reflects the sale of certain intellectual property to DepYmed in exchange for shares of Series A-4 preferred stock. Other income during the year ended September 30, 2020reflects the Company's license and transfer of certain clinical trial data during the year ended September 30, 2020.
Liquidity, capital resources and financial position
We have no revenues from product sales and have incurred operating losses since inception. We historically have funded our operations through the sale of common stock and the issuance of convertible notes and warrants. We expect to continue to incur significant operating losses for the foreseeable future and may never become profitable. As a result, we will likely need to raise additional capital through one or more of the following: the issuance of additional debt or equity or the completion of a licensing transaction for one or more of our pipeline assets. Management believes that it has sufficient working capital on hand to fund operations through at least the next twelve months from the date these consolidated financial statements were issued. Net working capital increased from the fiscal year ended
September 30, 2020to the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021by $21.1 million(to $50.7 millionfrom $29.7 million) primarily due to our April 2021underwritten public offering of 9,200,000 shares of common stock, at a price to the public of $5.00per share, offset, in part, by costs for the development of our PATrOL™ platform technology and lead programs. We received net proceeds from the offering of approximately $42.6 million, after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and other estimated offering expenses payable by us. Our quarterly cash burn has increased significantly compared to prior periods due to increased research and development activities. We anticipate that our cash needs will likely continue to increase relative to prior periods as we increase our research and development activities, and believe that our current cash balance will provide sufficient capital to continue operations into the first calendar quarter of 2023. At present, we have no bank line of credit or other fixed source of capital reserves. Should we need additional capital in the future, we will be primarily reliant upon a private or public placement of our equity or debt securities, or a strategic transaction, for which there can be no warranty or assurance that we may be successful in such efforts. If we are unable to maintain sufficient financial resources, our business, financial condition and results of operations will be materially and adversely affected. This could affect future development and business activities and potential future clinical studies and/or other future ventures. Failure to obtain additional equity or debt financing will have a material, adverse impact on the Company's business operations. There can be no assurance that we will be able to obtain the needed financing to achieve our goals on acceptable terms or at all.
Obligations and contractual commitments
October 2020, we entered into a ten-year operating lease agreement with annual escalating rental payments for approximately 14,189 square feet of office and laboratory space in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The leased premises serves as our headquarters. The first and second amendments to the lease agreement were executed in December 2020and April 2021, respectively (collectively with the lease agreement, the "Lease"). The Lease commenced on May 1, 2021and will last for a period of ten years from delivery of the leased premises to the Company, unless earlier terminated in accordance with the Lease. We have the right to extend the term of the Lease for an additional five-year term. We will pay an escalating base rent over the life of the Lease of approximately $71,000to $78,000per month, and we will pay our pro rata portion of property expenses and operating expenses for the property. 91 Table of Contents Cash Flow Summary The following table summarizes selected items in our consolidated statements of cash flows: Year Ended September 30, 20212020
Net cash used in operating activities
Net cash used in investing activities
Net cash flow generated by financing activities 42 338 255 33 105 208 Net increase in cash and cash equivalents
Operating Activities Net cash used in operating activities was approximately
$18.9 millionfor the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021as compared to $10.7 millionfor the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020. Net cash used in operating activities in 2021 was primarily as a result of our net loss as well as the change in the fair value of warrant liabilities, gain on sale of intellectual property and cash used for the security deposit and prepaid insurance, other prepaid expenses and current assets, including prepayment of rent under our new operating lease for office and laboratory space, offset by the research and development costs for the Vera acquisition, stock-based compensation expense and other changes in operating assets and liabilities. Net cash used in operating activities in 2020 was primarily as a result of our net loss, offset by stock based compensation and changes in operating assets and liabilities.
Net cash used in investing activities was approximately
$2.6 millionfor the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021, as compared to $0.7 millionfor the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020. Net cash used in investing activities in the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021was due to cash paid for the Vera acquisition and the purchases of laboratory equipment. Net cash used in investing activities in the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020was the result of purchases of laboratory and office equipment.
Net cash provided by financing activities was approximately
$42.3 millionfor the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021, as compared to $33.1 millionfor the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020. Net cash provided by financing activities for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021reflects the proceeds from the issuance of common stock of $42.6 million, net of issuance costs, and the principal payments of financed insurance. Net cash provided by financing activities for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020reflects the proceeds from the issuance of common stock of $33.3 million, net of issuance costs, and the principal payments of financed insurance
Recent accounting standards
See note 2 to our consolidated financial statements for a discussion of recent accounting standards and their effect, if any, on us.
Critical accounting estimates
Our management's discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based on our financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with
United Statesgenerally accepted accounting principles ("GAAP"). The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates, judgments and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of the balance sheet and the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period. In accordance with GAAP, we evaluate our estimates and judgments on an ongoing basis. The most significant estimates relate to the valuation of share-based compensation, the valuation of licenses, the fair value of warrant liabilities and the valuation allowance of deferred tax assets resulting from net operating losses. We base our estimates and assumptions on current facts, our limited historical experience from operations and various other factors that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions. We define our critical accounting policies as those accounting principles that require it to make subjective estimates and judgments about matters that are uncertain and are likely to have a material impact on our financial condition and results of operations, as well as 92
the specific manner in which we apply those principles. While our significant accounting policies are more fully described in Note 2 to our financial statements appearing elsewhere in this Form 10-K, we believe the following are the critical accounting policies used in the preparation of our financial statements that require significant estimates and judgments:
Fair value of financial instruments
In accordance with Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 820, the carrying value of cash and cash equivalents, accounts payable and notes payable approximates fair value due to the short-term maturity of these instruments. ASC 820 clarifies the definition of fair value, prescribes methods for measuring fair value, and establishes a fair value hierarchy to classify the inputs used in measuring fair value as follows:
? Level 1 – Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities
on the date of declaration.
Level 2 – Price inputs are based on quoted prices for similar instruments in
active markets, quoted prices of identical or similar instruments on the markets
? which are not active, model-based evaluation techniques for which all
significant assumptions are observable in the market or can be corroborated by
observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.
Level 3 – Price entries are generally unobservable and include situations
where there is little or no market activity for the investment. The entrees
in determining fair value require management judgment or
? estimate of the assumptions that market participants would use to set the price
active or passive. Fair values are therefore determined using factors
which involve considerable judgment and interpretations, including but not
limited to private and public comparable third-party valuations, updated
cash flow models and fund manager estimates.
September 30, 2021, the fair value of outstanding warrant liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis was $0 million. The warrant liabilities are valued using Level 3 valuation inputs. At September 30, 2020, the fair value of outstanding warrant liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis was $1.0 million.
Research and development
Research and development expenses are expensed in the statement of operations as incurred in accordance with the
Financial Accounting Standards Board("FASB") ASC 730, Research and Development. Research and development expenses consist of salaries and related benefits for personnel in research and development functions, including stock-based compensation and benefits and fees paid to consultants and contract research organizations for preclinical development work on our PATrOL™ platform and programs, as well as other costs. During the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021and 2020, we incurred $11.5 millionand $6.9 millionin research and development expenses.
We expense stock-based compensation to employees, non-employees and board members over the requisite service period based on the estimated grant-date fair value of the awards and actual forfeitures. We account for forfeitures as they occur. Stock-based awards with graded-vesting schedules are recognized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period for each separately vesting portion of the award. We estimate the fair value of stock option grants using the Black-Scholes option pricing model, and the assumptions used in calculating the fair value of stock-based awards represent management's best estimates and involve inherent uncertainties and the application of management's judgment. We were historically a private company and in certain instances lack sufficient company-specific historical and implied volatility information. Therefore, in instances where we lack sufficient company-specific historical information we estimates our expected stock volatility based on the historical volatility of a publicly traded set of peer companies. The expected term assumption for employee grants is based on a permitted simplified method, which is based on the vesting period and contractual term for each tranche of awards. The mid-point between the weighted-average vesting term and the expiration date is used 93
as the expected term under this method. The risk-free interest rate is determined by reference to the
U.S. Treasuryyield curve in effect for time periods approximately equal to the expected term of the award. Expected dividend yield is zero based on the fact that we have never paid cash dividends and does not expect to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future.
All stock-based compensation costs are recognized in general and administrative or research and development expenses in the consolidated statements of earnings depending on the role of the underlying person within the Company.
Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method. Deferred income taxes are recorded for temporary differences between financial statement carrying amounts and the tax basis of assets and liabilities. Deferred tax assets and liabilities reflect the tax rates expected to be in effect for the years in which the differences are expected to reverse. A valuation allowance is provided if it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. We also follow the provisions of accounting for uncertainty in income taxes which prescribes a model for the recognition and measurement of a tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return, and provides guidance on derecognition, classification, interest and penalties, disclosure and transition. In accordance with this guidance, tax positions must meet a more likely than not recognition threshold and measurement attribute for the financial statement recognition and measurement of tax position.
Our policy is to record interest and penalties related to income taxes as income tax expense in the accompanying consolidated statements of earnings.
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